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Avoiding Plagiarism | Viewpoints

How can students avoid plagiarism?

Know the policies — 92% of students surveyed in a national study of plagiarism and cheating in universities said they had been informed and that faculty members have taught them far more than orientation programs, the student handbook or other students

Here’s what other readers of this website have to say about plagiarism at WSU:

  1. “Cite. Form their own opinions.”
  2. “capture or write down citation information for a source as soon as you start using it”
  3. “the best way is to simply remember to cite your sources”
  4. “Start projects early so you have enough time to develop your own thoughts instead of regurgitating someone else’s.”

Reacting to and Preventing Plagiarism | Viewpoints

How can instructors prevent and react to plagiarism?

In a nationwide survey of plagiarism and cheating in universities:

  • Nearly 3/4 of faculty surveyed provide information about plagiarism on their syllabi, change exams regularly, and discuss the importance of academic integrity
  • Faculty talk about policies in the following areas — plagiarism (66% do it in the syllabus and 33% on individual assignments), group work/attribution (44% do it in the syllabus and 54% on individual assignments), proper attribution of sources (39% do it in the syllabus and 59% on individual assignments), and attribution of Internet sources (30% do it in the syllabus and 55% on individual assignments)
  • 55% of faculty fail the student on the assignment or exam, 37% report student to chair/director, 37% reprimand or warn the student, 33% fail the student for the class

43% of WSU faculty acknowledge that they have ignored cheating


Here’s what other readers of this website have to say about plagiarism at WSU:

  • “Instructors should take more time to teach students how to cite because I never learned how to cite properly in high school. Intentional plagiarism should be dealt with severely. Accidents involving problems with citing should be pointed out to the student and be corrected.”
  • “Instructors can provide detailed assignments that require evaluation of the material”
  • “1. tell students they check for it, 2. do the checking and follow through”
  • “Instructors can plan assignments that are more difficult to plagiarize. Instead of giving an assignment like ‘Write a paper about Brown vs. the Board of Education,’ students can be asked to write an argument about a specific aspect of that case and use the readings from their class to support the argument. That makes it harder to borrow or buy a generic paper.”

Is plagiarism wrong? | Viewpoints

Is plagiarism wrong? Why should we be concerned?

A nationwide study of plagiarism and cheating in universities revealed:

  • Students and faculty do not see eye to eye on what is serious cheating.

Here’s what other readers of this website have to say about plagiarism at WSU:

  1. “Yes. By copying someone else’s work you are not only cheating them of recognition for the hardwork that they put into it but you are cheating yourself out of learning and improvement of your own writing ability.”
  2. “absolutely, we’re here to earn degrees not steal them”
  3. “Obviously, the writer doesn’t understand plagiarism. It’s the stealing of other people’s words (their work). We all ‘steal’ ideas (and it’s legal). It’s the unique way we have of expressing those ideas in writing, film, music, etc. that is precious.”
  4. “Plagiarism is wrong. But there’s a lot of hysteria about it right now. It wasn’t invented with the Internet; it’s been happening for a very long time. It might be easier to plagiarize now, but it’s also easier for teachers to catch it. It’s an important issue, but has probably gotten more attention than it deserves.”

Is Plagiarism a Problem at WSU? | Viewpoints

Is plagiarism a problem at WSU?

A nationwide study of plagiarism and cheating in universities revealed the following facts:

  • 57% of faculty agree or strongly agree that it is a serious problem
  • 32% disagree that it is a problem, 46% don’t know, and 22% agree that it is a problem
  • students think “plagiarism on written assignments” occurs often or very often (45%), 43% say seldom, students think “inappropriate sharing in group assignments” occurs often or very often (60%), 3% say seldom
  • 9% of WSU students report having copied on an exam, 34% say they collaborated, 39% (compared to U.S. 44%) say they’ve done written ‘cut and paste’, and 37% say they’ve done Internet ‘cut and paste’

Here’s what other readers of this website have to say about Plagiarism at WSU:

  1. ”I do not think that it is. I have not experienced any intentional plagiarism only problems with knowing how to cite.”
  2. ”yes, I’ve noticed a lot of people doing it and I’m just one person”
  3. ”I don’t think plagiarism is a big problem at WSU because I don’t do it and niether do my friends.”

Plagiarism

WSU Plagiarism Information Site

Plagiarism has become a central academic integrity issue facing educational institutions everywhere. In early 2002, a group of interested people gathered to discuss the creation of a plagiarism information site for Washington State University. The group included WSU employees from a wide range of campus organizations including: the Writing Center, the English Department, the Center for Teaching Learning and Technology, the Office of Student Affairs, the WSU Libraries, and the University Ethics Interest Group.

The group sought to equip WSU affiliates with an effective tool, providing a comprehensive overview of the topic, offering a degree of clarity to an issue frought with confusion, and educating about WSU policies and procedures. This site features written work from representatives across the campus and is designed to meet the informational needs of both students and instructors.

Please send your questions or comments about this site to Corey Johnson. Enjoy the site!

Plagiarism – Viewpoints

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Viewpoints on Plagiarism

Answer the questions below and click the submit button to send us your comments. Click on the “Student and Faculty Responses” links to learn about other student and faculty perspectives.

 

Avoid Plagiarism

How Do I… Avoid Plagiarism?

What is Plagiarism?

There are two circumstances that could give rise to a charge of plagiarism.

Cheating (Intentional Plagiarism)

Intentional plagiarism is where one knowingly appropriates the work of others and passes it off as their own. This can include:

  • Copying entire documents and presenting them as your own
  • Cutting and pasting from the work of others without properly citing the authors
  • Stringing together the quotes and ideas of others without connecting their work to your own original work
  • Asserting ideas without acknowledging their sources, reproducing sentences written verbatim by others without properly quoting and attributing the work to them
  • Making only minor changes to the words or phrasing of another’s work, without properly citing the authors

Intentional plagiarism can also involve inventing sources to which you would attribute your own ideas to make them seem credible. Intentional plagiarists can be either ignorant of the seriousness of the offense, or disrespectful of the seriousness of the offense.

Misuse of Sources (Unintentional Plagiarism)

Unintentional plagiarism, or the misuse of sources, is the accidental appropriation of the ideas and materials of others due to a lack of understanding of the conventions of citation and documentation. This could include:

  • A lack of understanding of paraphrasing
  • Not being clear about the parameters of common knowledge
  • Not being clear about the statute of limitations on the attribution of ideas.

Since rules of attribution are culturally determined, much of unintentional plagiarism could also be the result of writers not understanding the sanctity with which American academics endow the concept of idea ownership. The misuse of sources can be the result of ignorance or laziness, but is not the result of a desire to cheat.

How to Avoid It

Gathering Research Materials
  • Allow time to make multiple trips to the library: Start your research early and consult reference librarians to learn about the best research tools for your topic.
  • Get extra sources: Get your research done early and get extra sources. You don’t have to use them all, but if you find there is a source you can’t use, you’ll have back up.
  • Expect it will take extra time to receive materials not available on your WSU campus: Search It and Interlibrary Loans make millions of resources available, but items not on your campus take from three days to two weeks to receive.
Taking Notes
  • Color code your notes: Be sure to distinguish between places where you are paraphrasing others’ ideas versus directly quoting from a source.
  • Use author and page notation: Make sure that every note you take is connected to the source’s author and page number. In addition, keep a running bibliography of complete citation information for each source used.
  • Keep a research log: It is helpful to keep a log of the catalogs, indexes, and databases you have consulted during the research process along with search terms used. This will help prevent repetitive searching.
Quoting
  • Quote sparingly: Use quotes only when the author’s choice of words to express his/her idea perfectly capture the point. No instructor wants to receive a written product that is basically a string of quotes.
  • Use proper quoting mechanics: Be sure to use quotation marks around the text you are quoting. Also, include the author’s name before or after the quotation and indicate added phrases with brackets [ ] and omitted text with ellipses …
  • Incorporate a citation: You must include citation elements in the sentence(s) you are quoting. These citation elements include author’s name, page number, and year, with the exact format varying across style manuals.
  • Samples: The WSU Libraries offer citation quick guides to help you create citations for your sources.
Paraphrasing and Summarizing
  • Use your interpretation: Without looking at the original text, craft your paraphrase or summary. Be sure you are using unique words and phrases and reordering clauses within the sentence. It is plagiarism to simply reorder words within a sentence or sentences within a paragraph.
  • Incorporate a citation: You must include citation elements in the sentence(s) you are paraphrasing or summarizing. These citation elements include author’s name, page number, and year, with the exact format varying across style manuals.
No Need to Cite Your Source
  • Using your own work: You do not need to cite your own thoughts, ideas, written products, or research.
  • Drawing on common knowledge: You do not need to cite information classified as common knowledge. Examples of common knowledge include indisputable facts known by large numbers of people, and common sense observations.

 

Learn more about plagiarism and how to avoid it in our Plagiarism Tutorial.

 

Acknowledging Indebtedness

The Pleasure of Acknowledging Indebtedness

“Pleasure” may seem to be a word far removed from the work of tracking and citing sources for your readers. And it is painstaking work to keep accurate notes of where you have found information, examples, and support. It is also true, however, that citing sources is, in many ways, a formal version of something we all do informally–and with a great deal of pleasure–on a regular basis: passing on good tips to people we think will appreciate them.

Let’s look at some examples:

Scenario A: A friend has stopped by and to tell you about a movie he saw this past weekend and how much he liked it. In describing the plot and characters, you realize that it sounds like your friend would also really enjoy a classic movie that is one of your favorites and that you recently saw available at VideoQuest. You recommend this video to your friend, saying, “You really should rent this movie. I think you’d love it!”

Scenario B: Tired of studying, you’ve taken time off over the weekend to bake a batch of chocolate chip cookies, one of your favorites from home. When your roommate returns from a jaunt to the library, she tries one and claims it is the best chocolate chip cookies she’s ever eaten. “Thanks,” you say, “it’s my grandma’s famous recipe. If you’d like it, I can e-mail it to you.”

Scenario C: You are taking a sociology class, your last course to fulfill the GER requirements. Working on your midterm take home exam, you realize that the topic you’ve been assigned fits in perfectly with the reading you did last semester in your criminal justice class. You loved that class, and you’re sure you kept the texts from that class instead of selling them back to the Bookie. Yep. Sure enough. They are on your bookshelf. You liked the book so well that you even remember where in the text the section is that you want to use, so you summarize the key point that seems relevant from this author, include a quotation that makes the point clear, put in a parenthetical citation to the work, and add it to your Works Cited page. You smile, thinking that your sociology professor will be impressed with the original connection you have made and with the reading you’ve done.

What do the three scenarios above have in common? In each, you have some piece of information that you think your audience would be interested in knowing, and you provide a way to share that information and its source with that audience. By doing so, you do two things:

  1. You let your audience know what sources have influenced you in some way;
  2. You let your audience know where to go to find out more about this source, thus giving your audience a chance to share your pleasure in the original.

This is the pleasure of acknowledging indebtedness, and we all do it in some form or another all the time.

In the university, we cite sources partly for the pleasure of being able to show our readers, “Hey, I read these things. I’ve used these sources to come to this particular focus or insight on this topic.” It’s a way of getting credit for the work you’ve put in preparing to write your paper, or for the connections you’ve been able to make between the paper topic and other reading or experiences you’ve had. The pleasure of acknowledging indebtedness also comes full-circle when others give proper credit to your unique ideas and contributions.

There is also the pleasure of being able to recommend sources to a reader who wants more information on something you’ve covered. You leave, in essence, a set of “tips” that others can follow. Furthermore, once you see this as a purpose of citing information, you can take advantage of the “tips” other people leave in their Works Cited. For example, if you find an article that is a great fit for your topic, chances are that at least some of the works this author has cited will also be helpful. It’s sort of like reading an interview with a favorite singer or band to find out who they listen to and find interesting; there’s a good chance you’ll like these other singers or bands as well.

Citing sources thus isn’t just about following some academic law. It’s also, ideally, a pleasure of sorts, allowing you to show off a bit the work that you’ve done in the university reading and absorbing others’ ideas while simultaneously pointing the way for others to pursue similar interests.

Who is Doing It?

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Plagiarism: Who is doing it and what has happened to them?

Scholars:

  • Historian Doris Kearns Goodwin
    • Source: Martin Arnold, “Historians Who Resort to Cutting and Pasting,”The New York Times, February 28, 2002, B1, B3
    • Result: public censure
  • Historian Stephen Ambrose
    • Source: Martin Arnold, “Historians Who Resort to Cutting and Pasting,”The New York Times, February 28, 2002, B1, B3
    • Result: public censure

Newspaper reporters:

  • San Francisco Chronicle Editor Dean Wakefield
    • Source: Dwight Garner, “Beg, Borrow, or Steal,” Salon.com
    • Result: fired from job
  • Associated Press Reporter Christopher Newton
    • Source: Felicity Barringer “Wire Service Says Reporter it Fired Inventer His Sources.” The New York Times, October 22, 2002
    • Result: fired from job
  • New York Times Reporter Jayson Blair
    • Source: Dan Barry et al. “CORRECTING THE RECORD; Times Reporter Who Resigned Leaves Long Trail of Deception.” NYT May 11, 2003, Sunday
    • Result: fired from job

College professors and presidents:

  • Hastings College President Richard E. Hoover
    • Source: Denise K. Magner, “Plagiarism Charge Prompts President of Hastings College to Retire,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 3, 2000, A39.
    • Result: retired under duress
  • SUNY-Albany Classics Chair Louis W. Roberts
    • Source: Sharon Walsh, “SUNY-Albany Classicist Loses Chairmanship After Being Accused Of Plagiarism,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 8, 2002, A12.
    • Result: lost chairship

Politicians:

  • Delaware Senator Joseph Biden
    • Accused of delivering, without attribution, passages from a speech by British Labor party leader Neil Kinnock during campaign speeches for the 1988 Democratic presidential nomination.
    • Source: Joseph Biden’s Plagiarism; Michael Dukakis’s ‘Attack Video’ – 1988.
    • Result: compromised presidential campaign
  • Prime Minister Tony Blair’s Office
    • Admitted copying material from published sources. “Jane’s Information Group, the company that publishes journals and articles about military affairs, said three of its pieces had appeared uncredited in a British government dossier on Iraq.
    • Source: “Group: Articles Copied in British Dossier, The Associate Press, February 8, 2003 New York Times.
    • Result: public embarrassment

College students:

Limited published information on specific students exists. Anecdotal evidence suggests that cheating in college is rampant. Studies suggest that colleges and universities with honor codes have less of a cheating problem then schools without them.

Donald McCabe and Linda Klebe Treviño. “Honesty and Honor Codes.” Academe On-line. September-October 2002. Vol 88 #5.,

“New Research on Academic Integrity: The Success of ‘modified’ Honor Codes.” College Administration Publications, Inc.,

Muha, Dave. “Cheating, When Students Cheat.” Rutgers Focus. March 17,

“Maryland: 6 University Students Admit Cheating.” The New York Times. Friday January 31, 2003 A19.

Results: failing grades for assignments and courses, expulsion from school

High school students:

Limited published information on specific students exists. Anecdotal evidence suggests that cheating in High school is rampant.

Brigid Schulte, “Cheatin’, Writin’ & ‘Rithmetic”, The Washington Post, September 15, 2002

Katie Hafner, “Lessons in the School of Cut and Paste”, New York Times, June 28, 2001

Results: failing grades for assignments and courses

How to Avoid It?

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Plagiarism – How to Avoid It

You need to understand that academic writing is a process fraught with contradictions: you are frequently asked to use your own words and ideas about subjects for which you not only lack expertise but are, in fact, in the process of learning. In addition, you are expected to access the thoughts and ideas of experts to bolster your argument. You are required to skillfully weave these ideas into your paper, so that everything flows smoothly, yet all the while keeping it crystal clear whose thoughts are whose. You are expected to write in your own style and your own voice, as long as it falls into the accepted norms of your discipline and/or the critical taste of your instructor. It’s not easy, and it’s not always clear-cut, but it is one of the processes that you are in school to master, and it will become more natural with practice. Keep in mind that if you have questions or uncertainties, faculty and other student support systems are here to help. In addition, read and utilize the strategies below.

Strategies

APA Citation Guide Exercises

MLA Citation Exercises

Strategies:

  1. Find a topic that engages you by doing some background reading and discussing your research question with professors, librarians, and other students.
  2. Be familiar with the WSU definition of and policies concerning plagiarism.
  3. Be sure you understand your instructors’ policies concerning plagiarism.
  4. Gathering Research Materials:
    • Allow time to make multiple trips to the library: start your research early and consult reference librarians to learn about the best research tools for your topic.
    • Get extra sources: Get your research done early and get extra sources. You don’t have to use them all, but if you find there is a source you can’t use, you’ll have back up.
    • Expect it will take extra time to receive materials not available on your WSU campus: Search It and Interlibrary Loans make millions of resources available, but items not on your campus take from three days to two weeks to receive.
  5. Taking Notes:
    • Color code your notes: Be sure to distinguish between places where you are paraphrasing others’ ideas versus directly quoting from a source.
    • Use author and page notation: Make sure that every note you take is connected to the source’s author and page number. In addition, keep a running bibliography of complete citation information for each source used.
    • Keep a research log: It is helpful to keep a log of the catalogs, indexes, and databases you have consulted during the research process along with search terms used. This will help prevent repetitive searching.
  6. Quoting:
    • Quote sparingly: Use quotes only when the author’s choice of words to express his/her idea perfectly capture the point. No instructor wants to receive a written product that is basically a string of quotes.
    • Use proper quoting mechanics: Be sure to use quotation marks around the text you are quoting. Also, include the author’s name before or after the quotation and indicate added phrases with brackets [ ] and omitted text with ellipses …
    • Incorporate a citation: You must include citation elements in the sentence(s) you are quoting. These citation elements include author’s name, page number, and year, with the exact format varying across style manuals.
    • Samples: The Libraries at UNC-Chapel Hill offer a Citing Information Tutorial which gives quoting examples for APA and MLA.
  7. Paraphrasing and Summarizing:
    • Use your interpretation: Without looking at the original text, craft your paraphrase or summary. Be sure you are using unique words and phrases and reordering clauses within the sentence. It is plagiarism to simply reorder words within a sentence or sentences within a paragraph.
    • Incorporate a citation: You must include citation elements in the sentence(s) you are paraphrasing or summarizing. These citation elements include author’s name, page number, and year, with the exact format varying across style manuals.
    • Samples: The Libraries at UNC-Chapel Hill offer a Citing Information Tutorial which gives paraphrasing examples for APA and MLA.
  8. No Need to Cite Your Source:
    • Using your own work: You do not need to cite your own thoughts, ideas, written products, or research.
    • Drawing on common knowledge: You do not need to cite information classified as common knowledge. Examples of common knowledge include indisputable facts known by large numbers of people, and common sense observations.

Works consulted in the creation of this document included avoiding plagiarism Web pages from theOnline Writing Lab at Purdue University and Duke University Libraries.

APA Citation Exercises

Directions: For each exercise below, determine whether or not plagiarism has occurred.

Original Source A:

“Survey respondents may have only viewed face-to-face communication as human help, while not considering email as human help because of its technological mask.” (Corey Johnson, published 2003, page 58)

Exercises A:

  1. Survey takers may have only thought of in-person communication as human help, while not considering electronic mail as human assistance because of its technological cover (Johnson, p. 58).
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    This attempt at paraphrasing the original source was unsuccessful because while some of the words from the original were changed, the sentence structure of the original was not altered.
    When paraphrasing in MLA, you should have a page number.

  2. Because email communication does not involve direct human contact, survey respondents may have only classified in-person communication as human help (Johnson, 2003).
    Answer

    Answer: Not Plagiarism
    Good example of paraphrasing.

  3. In his book, Online Chat Reference Explored, Corey Johnson (2003) notes, “Survey respondents may have only viewed face-to-face communication as human help, while not considering email as human help because of its technological mask” (p. 58).
    Answer

    Answer: Not Plagiarism
    Good example of quoting.

  4. Survey respondents may have only viewed face-to-face communication as human help, while not considering email as human help because of its technological mask.
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    Use of the exact words from above with no quotation marks, no citation.

Original Source B:

“Even though the commercial companies provide lower quality service, they garner much more patronage than not-for-profits because of aggressive marketing strategies and name recognition.” (James Davis, published 1986, page 236).

Exercises B:

  1. According to James Davis (1986), commercial companies attract more business than non-profits because of saturating marketing tactics, even while offering inferior service.
    Answer

    Answer: Not Plagiarism
    Good example of paraphrasing.

  2. While for-profit companies provide worse service, they get more customers than non-profits because of assertive marketing tactics and customer familiarity with their names (Davis, 1986).
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    Many words were changed but the sentence structure is the same.

  3. Although the commercial companies provide lower quality service, they get more customers because of aggressive marketing tactics (Davis, 1986).
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    The phrase “commercial companies provide lower quality service” needs quotes and consequently you’d need to add the page number.

Original Source C:

“The emperor played many diverse roles for the people, he was the chief spiritual leader and contact with the gods, he also commanded the military and was the society’s central legislator.” (Lindsay Madens, published 1990, page 87)

Exercises C:

  1. Among the duties of the emperor, he was chief spiritual leader and commanded the military.
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    Use of same phrases such as “chief spiritual leader” and “commanded the military” with no quotes.
    No citation.

  2. Lindsay Madens (1990) indicates the emperor’s life was full of important responsibilities. She outlines many of them including “chief spiritual leader” and “society’s central legislator” (p. 87).
    Answer

    Answer: Not Plagiarism
    Good example of combining quoting and paraphrasing.

  3. Lindsay Madens (1990) recognizes the many roles of the emperor. He was both the central religious figure and lawmaker.
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    Second sentence is Madens’ idea, so you need to put (1990) at the end of the second sentence.

  4. Serving as the primary authority and leader concerning religious, military, and political matters, the emperor had powerful and varied duties (Madens, 1990).
    Answer

    Answer: Not Plagiarism
    Good example of paraphrasing.

MLA Citation Exercises

Directions: For each exercise below, determine whether or not plagiarism has occurred.

Original Source A:

“Survey respondents may have only viewed face-to-face communication as human help, while not considering email as human help because of its technological mask.” (Corey Johnson, published 2003, page 58)

Exercises A:

  1. Survey takers may have only thought of in-person communication as human help, while not considering electronic mail as human assistance because of its technological cover. (Johnson).
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    This attempt at paraphrasing the original source was unsuccessful because while some of the words from the original were changed, the sentence structure of the original was not altered When paraphrasing in APA, you should not have a page number, but instead the year.

  2. Because email communication does not involve direct human contact, survey respondents may have only classified in-person communication as human help (Johnson 58).
    Answer

    Answer: Not Plagiarism
    Good example of paraphrasing.

  3. In his book, Online Chat Reference Explored, Corey Johnson notes, “Survey respondents may have only viewed face-to-face communication as human help, while not considering email as human help because of its technological mask” (58).
    Answer

    Answer: Not Plagiarism
    Good example of quoting.

  4. Survey respondents may have only viewed face-to-face communication as human help, while not considering email as human help because of its technological mask.
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    Use of the exact words from above with no quotation marks.
    No citation.

Original Source B:

“Even though the commercial companies provide lower quality service, they garner much more patronage than not-for-profits because of aggressive marketing strategies and name recognition.” (James Davis, published 1986, page 236).

Exercises B:

  1. According to James Davis, commercial companies attract more business than non-profits because of saturating marketing tactics, even while offering inferior customer service (236).
    Answer

    Answer: Not Plagiarism
    Good example of paraphrasing.

  2. While for-profit companies provide worse service, they get more customers than non-profits because of assertive marketing tactics and customer familiarity with their names (Davis 236).
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    Many words were changed but the sentence structure is the same.

  3. Although the commercial companies provide lower quality service, they get more customers because of aggressive marketing tactics (Davis 236).
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    The phrase “commercial companies provide lower quality service” needs quotes.

Original Source C:

“The emperor played many diverse roles for the people, he was the chief spiritual leader and contact with the gods, he also commanded the military and was the society’s central legislator.” (Lindsay Madens, published 1990, page 87)

Exercises C:

  1. Among the duties of the emperor, he was chief spiritual leader and commanded the military.
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    Use of same phrases such as “chief spiritual leader” and “commanded the military” with no quotes.
    No citiation.

  2. Lindsay Madens indicates the emperor’s life was full of important responsibilities. She outlines many of them including “chief spiritual leader” and “society’s central legislator” (87).
    Answer

    Answer: Not Plagiarism
    Good example of combining quoting and paraphrasing.

  3. Lindsay Madens recognizes the many roles of the emperor (87). He is both chief spiritual leader and the society’s central legislator.
    Answer

    Answer: Plagiarism
    The second sentence is Maden’s idea so the page number belongs at the end of the second sentence.
    Phrases such as “chief spiritual leader” and “commanded the military” with no quotes.

  4. Serving as the primary authority and leader concerning religious, military, and political matters, the emperor had powerful and varied duties (Madens 87).
    Answer

    Answer: Not Plagiarism
    Good example of paraphrasing.


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